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Blue and Yellow Diamond — Legs from here to Homewo

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Semi-realism Eyes tutorial

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Semi-realism tutorial

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Eye Tutorial

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Semi-realism lips. step by step

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brush settings

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Nose tutorial. Step by step

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Pink Diamond — A single Pale rose

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Horoscope: Capricorn

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Jirou Kyouka

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SBS: Skin Tones [ Torso ]

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Nier Automata

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Hanahaki Disease

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Stylized Face Anatomy Tutorial

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Simba and Nala

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Crappy Color Palette Away

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Digital Semi-Realism Skin Tutorial

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Learn Manga Basics Semi Eyes 4 Refference

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Step by step. resources nose-eyes

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Waiting someone

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Eyes step by step

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+Painting anime hair…tutorial+

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Realism (international relations) — Wikipedia

Realism is a school of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe. Although a highly diverse body of thought, it can be thought of as unified by the belief that world politics ultimately is always and necessarily a field of conflict among actors pursuing power. Crudely, realists are of three kinds in what they take the source of ineliminable conflict to be. Classical realists believe that it follows from human nature, neorealists focus upon the structure of the anarchic state system, and neoclassical realists believe that it is a result of a combination of the two and certain domestic variables. Realists also disagree about what kind of action states ought to take to navigate world politics and neorealists are divided between defensive realism and offensive realism. Realists have also claimed that a realist tradition of thought is evident within the history of political thought all the way back to antiquity to Thucydides.

Jonathan Haslam characterizes realism as «a spectrum of ideas.»[1] Regardless of which definition is used, the theories of realism revolve around four central propositions:[2]

Realism is often associated with Realpolitik as both are based on the management of the pursuit, possession, and application of power. Realpolitik, however, is an older prescriptive guideline limited to policy-making (like foreign policy), while realism is a particular paradigm, or wider theoretical and methodological framework, aimed at describing, explaining and, eventually, predicting events in the international relations domain. The theories of Realism are contrasted by the cooperative ideals of liberalism.

Realism is one of the dominant strains of thought in modern foreign policy. As an academic pursuit, realism is not tied to ideology; it does not favor any particular moral philosophy, nor does it consider ideology to be a major factor in the behavior of nations. Priorities of realists have been described as «Machiavellian», with the primary focus being increasing the relative power of one’s own nation over others.[3]

en.wikipedia.org

Realism (arts) — Wikipedia

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and can be in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization.

In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. But realist or naturalist works of art may, as well or instead of illusionist realism, be «realist» in their subject-matter, and emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid. This is typical of the 19th-century Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution,[1] and also social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism. The Realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century.

There have been various movements invoking realism in the other arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism, and Italian neorealist cinema.

Visual arts[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

Naïve realism — Wikipedia

For the psychological theory called «naïve realism», see naïve realism (psychology)

Naïve realism argues we perceive the world directly

In philosophy of mind, naïve realism, also known as direct realism, common sense realism or perceptual realism, is the idea that the senses provide us with direct awareness of objects as they really are. Objects obey the laws of physics and retain all their properties whether or not there is anyone to observe them.[1] They are composed of matter, occupy space and have properties, such as size, shape, texture, smell, taste and colour, that are usually perceived correctly.

In contrast, some forms of idealism claim that no world exists apart from mind-dependent ideas, and some forms of skepticism say we cannot trust our senses. Naïve realism is known as direct as against indirect or representational realism when its arguments are developed to counter the latter position, also known as epistemological dualism;[2] that our conscious experience is not of the real world but of an internal representation of the world.

History[edit]

For a history of direct realist theories, see Direct and indirect realism § History.

Overview[edit]

The naïve realist theory may be characterized as the acceptance of the following five beliefs:

  • There exists a world of material objects
  • Some statements about these objects can be known to be true through sense-experience
  • These objects exist not only when they are being perceived but also when they are not perceived. The objects of perception are largely perception-independent.
  • These objects are also able to retain properties of the types we perceive them as having, even when they are not being perceived. Their properties are perception-independent.
  • By means of our senses, we perceive the world directly, and pretty much as it is. In the main, our claims to have knowledge of it are justified.»[3]

In the area of visual perception in psychology, the leading direct realist theorist was J. J. Gibson. Other psychologists were heavily influenced by this approach, including William Mace, Claire Michaels,[4] Edward Ree

en.wikipedia.org

Realism — Wikipedia

Look up realism, realist, or realistic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to:

  • Philosophical realism, belief that reality exists independently of observers. Related positions include:
    • Aesthetic realism (metaphysics)
    • Agential realism (Barad)
    • Australian realism
    • Austrian realism
    • Conceptualist realism (Wiggins)
    • Critical realism (disambiguation)
    • Dialectical realism (Hacking)
    • Direct realism
    • Empirical realism
    • Entity realism
    • Hermeneutic realism (Heidegger)
    • Internal realism (Putnam)
    • Local realism, a term used by Einstein in the context of the principle of locality
    • Logical realism, the conviction the rules of logic are mind-independent
    • Metaphysical realism
    • Modal realism
    • Model-dependent realism (Hawking and Mlodinow)
    • Moderate realism
    • Moral realism
    • Naïve realism
    • New realism (philosophy)
    • Peircean realism
    • Platonic realism
    • Quasi-realism
    • Realistic rationalism (Katz)
    • Referential realism
    • Romantic realism
    • Scientific realism
      • Musgrave’s scientific realism
    • Scotistic realism
    • Semantic realism (epistemology) (a position criticized by Dummett)
    • Semantic realism (philosophy of science) (Psillos)
    • Semirealism (Chakravartty)
    • Set-theoretic realism (Maddy)
    • Speculative realism
    • Structuralism (philosophy of science)
    • Transcendental realism (Schelling, Schopenhauer, Bhaskar)
    • Truth-value link realism (a position criticized by Dummett)
  • Realist views in the social sciences include:
    • Ethnographic realism, a writing style that narrates the author’s anthropological observations as if they were first-hand
    • Legal realism, the view that jurisprudence should emulate the methods of natural science, i.e., rely on empirical evidence
    • Realism (international relations), the view that world politics is driven by competitive self-interest
      • Neorealism (international relations)
    • Structural realism, in international relations
  • Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthfully. Related movements include:
    • Literary realism, a movement from the mid 19th to the early 20th century
    • Neorealism (art)

en.wikipedia.org

Realism (art movement) — Wikipedia

This article is about the 19th-century art movement. For naturalism or realism in the arts, see Realism (arts).

Realism was an artistic movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution.[1] Realists rejected Romanticism, which had dominated French literature and art since the late 18th century. Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and the exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement. Instead, it sought to portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. Realist works depicted people of all classes in situations that arise in ordinary life, and often reflected the changes brought by the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions. The popularity of such «realistic» works grew with the introduction of photography—a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce representations which look objectively real.

The Realists depicted everyday subjects and situations in contemporary settings, and attempted to depict individuals of all social classes in a similar manner. Classical idealism and Romantic emotionalism and drama were avoided equally, and often sordid or untidy elements of subjects were not smoothed over or omitted. Social realism emphasizes the depiction of the working class, and treating them with the same seriousness as other classes in art, but realism, as the avoidance of artificiality, in the treatment of human relations and emotions was also an aim of Realism. Treatments of subjects in a heroic or sentimental manner were equally rejected.[2]

Realism as an art movement was led by Gustave Courbet in France. It spread across Europe and was influential for the rest of the century and beyond, but as it became adopted into the mainstream of painting it becomes less common and useful as a term to define artistic style. After the arrival of Impressionism and later movements which downgraded the importance of precise illusionistic brushwork, it often came to refer simply to the use of a more traditional and tighter painting style. It has been used for a number of later movements and trends in art, some involving careful illusionistic representation, such as Photorealism, and others the depiction of «realist» subject matter in a social sense, or attempts at both.

Beginnings in France[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

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