How to use etc – How to Use Etc. Correctly?

How to Use Etc. Correctly?

  • Et cetera is a Latin phrase. Et means “and.” Cetera means “the rest.”
  • The abbreviation of et cetera is etc.
  • Use etc. when you begin a list that you will not complete; it indicates that there are other items in the list besides the ones you explicitly mention.
  • The abbreviation is more common than the full phrase in business and technical writing.

How to Use Et Cetera Correctly

Have you seen the musical The King and I? If so, you might remember King Mongkut’s catchphrase, “Et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.” Why did this Siamese king find the phrase so useful? You might love it as much as he did once you find out exactly how to use it.

In one scene from The King and I, King Mongkut tells his governess the rules of conduct that she will have to follow in his presence. He explains that her head should never be higher than his. She will have to sit when he sits, kneel when he kneels, “et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.” If he had not used the phrase, he might have felt the need to continue with more actions of the same class—when he lies or bends down, for example. Et cetera allows him to get the point across and move on.

How to Use Et Cetera in a Sentence

If you are writing a research paper or any other formal work, be careful of how you use et cetera. It can be used only when unmentioned items are of the same type as the items mentioned earlier. Imagine that King Mongkut also wanted his governess to eat when he eats and clap when he claps. He could not use et cetera to indicate this after saying she should sit when he sits because those actions don’t logically belong to the same class as the others.

A good way to test whether etc. is appropriate is to substitute “and so on” or “and so forth.” If those synonyms make sense, you can use etc. You should never use “and et cetera.” Remember, et means “and.” “And et cetera” is redundant.

Usage note: Don’t use a comma after etc. if it is at the end of the sentence.

Examples of Et Cetera Usage

“Less work,” Peter offered, cheerily. “If the dog’s imaginary, I mean. Not so much grooming, feeding, et cetera.”
— Meg Rosoff, Just in Case

“I love you to pieces, distraction, etc.”
— J.D. Salinger, Franny and Zooey

Who are respondents (registered voters, likely voters, state residents, etc.)?
—Poynter.org

How to Pronounce Et Cetera

When a foreign phrase becomes part of another language, speakers of that language don’t always know exactly how to pronounce it. Or they might have trouble with the foreign pronunciation. The et of et cetera has a final T sound, but some Americans substitute a K sound. This kind of mispronunciation is called assimilation. It is a mistake, but a very common one. If you are aware of it, you can avoid making the same mistake and also recognize the phrase even when you hear it mispronounced. Native speakers also extend the meaning of certain foreign phrases beyond their definition in the original language. Et cetera often appears when someone finds a list tedious or obvious. They might utter it in a tired tone or say the phrase rapidly.

www.grammarly.com

Etc. Usage: How to Use Etc. Correctly

Confused about etc. usage? Here’s what’s important.

Et cetera is a Latin phrase that means “and others.” It is mostly used in the short form “etc.”

“Etc.” is used to shorten a list. When there are many things to say, and the reader or listener will already understand what they are, “etc.” can be used to make the list shorter.

The most important thing to remember about “etc.” usage is that “etc.” should only be used to make things easier for the reader. For a list that could be long and would waste the reader’s time, it is a good idea.

Good:

Green vegetables (broccoli, spinach, etc.) can be good for your health.

Bad:

Green vegetables (broccoli, spinach, Swiss chard, dandelion greens, loose leaf, boy choy, lollo rosso, romaine lettuce, chicory, water spinach, butterhead, arugula, kale, cyclone spinach, mustard greens, collard greens, red leaf, turnip greens, endive, asparagus, artichoke) can be good for your health.

Here, the reader already understands what green vegetables are, and can guess what would be on a list of green vegetables. The point is to say that green vegetables are healthy, and not to give examples of every possible green vegetable. A full list of green vegetables is unnecessary and wastes the reader’s time.

In many cases however, “etc.” usage can make the writer seem sloppy, lazy, or even dishonest.
A lazy writer can use “etc.” because he or she does not want to explain things to the reader.

Bad:

This unique new chemical has many amazing uses (treating cancer, boosting the immune system, etc.) that are likely to make it very popular.

Here, the writer uses “etc.” so that he or she does not have to explain more. This saves time for the writer but makes things difficult for the reader, who cannot guess what the other amazing uses are.

“Etc.” can also show that the writer does not care about the reader enough to think about his or her perspective.

Bad:

Important thinkers (Flaubert, Rousseau, etc.) all agree on this idea.

Here, the writer thinks that it is not necessary to explain who the important thinkers are, or who agrees on the idea. It is important, because the reader does not know and cannot guess.

The worst use of “etc.” is to try to trick the reader into thinking that there are more examples than there are.

Bad:

English contains thousands of words that don’t rhyme with anything else—orange, silver, etc.—and which can be difficult to use in writing lyrics.

Here, there are not thousands of examples, but by giving two examples and using “etc.”, the writer tries to trick the reader into believing that there are.

The important thing is that “etc.” should make things easier for the reader, and not for the writer.

If you are not sure whether to use “etc.”, it is better not to.

If you do want to use «etc.», remember seven important points:

      1) Always put a full stop at the end of “etc.”
      2) If “etc.” is at the end of a sentence, you do not need another full stop after it, but if the sentence ends with an exclamation mark or question mark, you still need to put use them. They come after the full stop, and do not replace it. A comma also comes after the full stop.
      3) “Etc.” is very often used in parentheses, or in a phrase separated by dashes.
      4) “And etc.” is wrong. Do not use it. It means “and and others” and does not make sense.
      5) Do not use “etc.” at the end of a list that starts with “e.g.,” “for example,” or “such as.” These already mean that the list does not contain every possible item, so “etc.” is not necessary. In fact, these can be used instead of “etc.” and sound better in formal writing.
      6) “Etc.” can also be replaced with “and so on,” “and so forth,” and “among others.” These often sound better than “etc.”
      7) “Etc.” can be used at the end of a list that starts with i.e., but it is probably better to avoid doing this.

If you feel that using “etc.” is a good idea, follow the points above and you should be fine. Remember, if you are not sure, don’t use it!

Did we catch everything about “etc.?” If not, feel free to add your opinions and ideas in the comments below.
Interested in an edit or proofread?

Try it for free now!

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How to Use “Etc.” — Seo Land

By Shundalyn Allen

Have you seen the musical The King and I? If so, you might remember King Mongkut’s catchphrase, “Et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.” Why did this Siamese king find the phrase so useful? You might love it as much as he did once you find out exactly how to use it.

Et cetera is a Latin phrase. Et means “and.” Cetera means “the rest.” The abbreviation of et cetera is etc. The abbreviation is more common than the full phrase in business and technical writing. You use it when you begin a list that you will not complete; it indicates that there are other items in the list besides the ones you explicitly mention.

For example, in one scene from The King and I, King Mongkut tells his governess the rules of conduct that she will have to follow in his presence. He explains that her head should never be higher than his. She will have to sit when he sits, kneel when he kneels, “et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.” If he had not used the phrase, he might have felt the need to continue with more actions of the same class—when he lies or bends down, for example. Et cetera allows him to get the point across and move on.

When a foreign phrase becomes part of another language, speakers of that languages don’t always know exactly how to pronounce it. Or they might have trouble with the foreign pronunciation. The et of et cetera has a final T sound, but some Americans substitute a K sound. This kind of mispronunciation is called assimilation. It is a mistake, but a very common one. If you are aware of it, you can avoid making the same mistake and also recognize the phrase even when you hear it mispronounced. Native speakers also extend the meaning of certain foreign phrases beyond their definition in the original language. Et cetera often appears when someone finds a list tedious or obvious. They might utter it in a tired tone or say the phrase rapidly.

If you are writing a research paper or any other formal work, be especially careful of how you use et cetera. First of all, it can be used only when the unmentioned items are of the same type as the items mentioned earlier. Imagine that King Mongkut also wanted his governess to eat when he eats and clap when he claps. He could not use et cetera to indicate this after saying she should sit when he sits because those actions don’t logically belong to the same class as the others.

Allow the children to eat only healthy food—vegetables, fruits, etc. (You establish the category and then give a few examples.)

Allow the children to eat only healthy food—vegetables, cupcakes, etc. (This is an incorrect usage because everything on the list should fall into the category of healthy food.)

The children should bring paper, pencils, scissors, etc. (You can discern the category from the examples.)

The children should bring crayons, blankets, birth certificates, etc. (The class is not clear. Unless you previously state the connection between the items and the rest of the list is easily imaginable, you can’t use etc.)

A good way to test whether etc. is appropriate is to substitute “and so on” or “and so forth.” If those synonyms make sense with the context, you can use etc. You should never use “and et cetera.” Remember, et means “and,” so “and et cetera” is redundant.

Usage note: Don’t use a comma after etc. if it is at the end of the sentence.

One of the governess’s job duties is to teach the king about Western culture. In the film, she introduces him to the phrase et cetera, and he embraces it wholeheartedly. It’s pretty common in technical writing, so it is important to know what it means. Poet E.E. Cummings even wrote a poem about it! If you feel the same amount of enthusiasm, make an effort to use it in the correct way. And if it’s not your cup of tea, don’t worry. You can always use a synonym.

The post How to Use “Etc.” appeared first on Grammarly Blog.

Source:: grammarly.com

seoland.in

Use etc. in a sentence

  • PT: There are several materials from which the contact lenses are made, such as RGP(rigid gas permeable), SH(silicone hydro-gel), soft contact lenses, etc. Dry eyes can occur by wearing contact lenses or by wearing the wrong contact lenses.

  • In other words, twins may really have the capability to know what the other is thinking and whether the other is feeling any pain, sadness, etc. On the physical side, twins sometimes have other commonalities, such as missing the same tooth.

  • Tim was sent to the grocery store to pick up some basic items (milk, bread, eggs, etc.) for his wife.

  • The summer camp offers many outdoor activities for kids such as fishing, hiking, canoeing, etc.

  • New technology, like smartphones, fitness trackers, etc., are altering our day-to-day lives. Is it always for the better?

  • While the weather is warm, Jim is going to mow the lawn, wash the cars, tend to the weeds, etc.

  • The stone knives, arrowheads, celts, hoe-blades, hammers, nails, awls, etc., associated with this pottery are of kinds which though simple and often crude in type are nevertheless not early, but date from the transition period to the age of metal and the earliest centuries of the latter period.

  • Around the cottages in the mountains the land is cleared for cultivation, and produces thriving crops of barley, wheat, buckwheat, millet, mustard, chillies, etc. Turnips of excellent quality are extensively grown; they are free from fibre and remarkably sweet.

  • The climate is favourable to the growth of plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, currants, gooseberries, etc. There are many localities in which cranberries are successfully grown, and in which blueberries also grow wild in great profusion.

  • Knit goods are manufactured, but the importance of the place is due to its sulphur springs, the waters of which are used for the treatment of skin diseases, gout, rheumatism, etc., and to the tonic air and fine scenery.

  • With more than 5,000 bottles of wine and a menu of seafood appetizers (crab cakes, salmon, etc) to feature dishes of filet mignon or butter-poached lobster, the Capital Grille’s menu is on display upon entry, courtesy of the aroma of its fine foods.

  • sentence.yourdictionary.com

    How to Use “Etc.” — Seo Land

    By Shundalyn Allen

    Have you seen the musical The King and I? If so, you might remember King Mongkut’s catchphrase, “Et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.” Why did this Siamese king find the phrase so useful? You might love it as much as he did once you find out exactly how to use it.

    Et cetera is a Latin phrase. Et means “and.” Cetera means “the rest.” The abbreviation of et cetera is etc. The abbreviation is more common than the full phrase in business and technical writing. You use it when you begin a list that you will not complete; it indicates that there are other items in the list besides the ones you explicitly mention.

    For example, in one scene from The King and I, King Mongkut tells his governess the rules of conduct that she will have to follow in his presence. He explains that her head should never be higher than his. She will have to sit when he sits, kneel when he kneels, “et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.” If he had not used the phrase, he might have felt the need to continue with more actions of the same class—when he lies or bends down, for example. Et cetera allows him to get the point across and move on.

    When a foreign phrase becomes part of another language, speakers of that languages don’t always know exactly how to pronounce it. Or they might have trouble with the foreign pronunciation. The et of et cetera has a final T sound, but some Americans substitute a K sound. This kind of mispronunciation is called assimilation. It is a mistake, but a very common one. If you are aware of it, you can avoid making the same mistake and also recognize the phrase even when you hear it mispronounced. Native speakers also extend the meaning of certain foreign phrases beyond their definition in the original language. Et cetera often appears when someone finds a list tedious or obvious. They might utter it in a tired tone or say the phrase rapidly.

    If you are writing a research paper or any other formal work, be especially careful of how you use et cetera. First of all, it can be used only when the unmentioned items are of the same type as the items mentioned earlier. Imagine that King Mongkut also wanted his governess to eat when he eats and clap when he claps. He could not use et cetera to indicate this after saying she should sit when he sits because those actions don’t logically belong to the same class as the others.

    Allow the children to eat only healthy food—vegetables, fruits, etc. (You establish the category and then give a few examples.)

    Allow the children to eat only healthy food—vegetables, cupcakes, etc. (This is an incorrect usage because everything on the list should fall into the category of healthy food.)

    The children should bring paper, pencils, scissors, etc. (You can discern the category from the examples.)

    The children should bring crayons, blankets, birth certificates, etc. (The class is not clear. Unless you previously state the connection between the items and the rest of the list is easily imaginable, you can’t use etc.)

    A good way to test whether etc. is appropriate is to substitute “and so on” or “and so forth.” If those synonyms make sense with the context, you can use etc. You should never use “and et cetera.” Remember, et means “and,” so “and et cetera” is redundant.

    Usage note: Don’t use a comma after etc. if it is at the end of the sentence.

    One of the governess’s job duties is to teach the king about Western culture. In the film, she introduces him to the phrase et cetera, and he embraces it wholeheartedly. It’s pretty common in technical writing, so it is important to know what it means. Poet E.E. Cummings even wrote a poem about it! If you feel the same amount of enthusiasm, make an effort to use it in the correct way. And if it’s not your cup of tea, don’t worry. You can always use a synonym.

    The post How to Use “Etc.” appeared first on Grammarly Blog.

    Source:: grammarly.com

    seoland.in

    Is it etc. or etc?

    I often see ‘etc.‘ punctuated and used incorrectly. I have put together some guidelines around the correct punctuation and use of ‘et cetera‘ to help you with your writing.

    Firstly, let’s look a the meaning of ‘et cetera‘ and when it should be used. The origin of ‘et cetera‘ is Latin and it means ‘and the rest’. It is used in writing to say ‘and so on’, ‘and so forth’ or ‘and other things’.

    If you are listing specific items, you should not put ‘etc.‘ at the end as this would mean ‘and other things’. You are not referring to other things, you are only discussing specific items in your list. For example:

    I need to go to the shop for bread, milk, sugar, etc.

    This means I need to go to the shop for bread, milk, sugar and other things. If I only needed to go to the shop for bread, milk and sugar, I would not use ‘etc.‘ at the end of the sentence. I would write:

    I need to go to the shop for bread, milk and sugar.

    Similarly, if you have already stated ‘for example’ or ‘e.g.’ at the beginning of your list, you are already stating that the list is not complete, you do not have to use ‘etc.‘ at the end of the list also. For example:

    I need to go to the shop for a few things e.g. bread, milk, sugar.

    This means I need to go to the shop for a few things including bread, milk and sugar. I am already saying that this list is incomplete and providing an example of some things that I need, I do not need to put ‘etc.‘ at the end to say I need other things.

    Now that we have talked about the correct usage of ‘etc.‘, let’s look at the punctuation. The big question is whether there should be a full stop at the end of ‘etc.‘. The official answer is ‘yes’. It is an abbreviation so should have a full stop, it is punctuated in the dictionary and in most style manuals and guides. However, in today’s world, open punctuation is often used. If you are using open punctuation and the document is informal, you can get away with no punctuation and writing ‘etc‘. Otherwise, I would recommend that you punctuate.

    So, how do you work in the punctuation for the abbreviation with the other punctuation of the sentence, I hear you ask. Well, if the ‘etc.‘ is at the end of the sentence, the full stop applies for the abbreviation and the end of the sentence so only one full stop is needed. For example:

    I’m allergic to cheese, milk, butter, etc.

    If the ‘etc.‘ is in brackets or parentheses, then you should have the full stop for the abbreviation, close bracket or parenthesis and add a full stop for the end of the sentence. For example:

    I am allergic to dairy products (cheese, milk, butter, etc.).

    If ‘etc.‘ appears mid sentence and you want to add to the sentence, you should include the full stop for the abbreviation and then a comma. For example:

    I am allergic to cheese, milk, butter, etc., I am also allergic to cats.

    If using ‘etc.‘ at the end of a sentence that poses a question, then the question mark appears after the full stop. For example:

    «Are you allergic to cheese, milk, butter, etc.?»

    If ‘etc.‘ appears at the end of a sentence requiring an exclamation mark, the exclamation mark appears after the full stop. For example:

    Susan started sneezing, there was a dog nearby, she was allergic to dogs, cats, mice, etc.!

    One final point on punctuation, a comma is used before the ‘etc.‘ in a list of items. For example:

    I hope my son isn’t allergic to cheese, milk, butter, etc.

     

    www.proofeditme.com

    How to use the «hosts» file?

    The hosts file is used to map hostnames (in other words domains) to IP addresses. With the hosts file you can change the IP address that you resolve a given domain name to. This change only affects your own computer without affecting how the domain is resolved worldwide.

    This is particularly useful when you wish to see how a website will look like when hosted on a different server without making any DNS changes to your domain.

    The location of the hosts file, depending on the operating system that you are using, is:

    • WindowsSystemRoot > system32 > drivers > etc > hosts
      By default the system root is C:\Windows, so if you are using Windows, your hosts file is most probably: C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts)
    • Linux/etc/hosts
    • Mac OS X — /private/etc/hosts

    Let’s say that you wish to resolve yourdomain.com to the IP address 1.2.3.4. In this case you would need to open up the hosts file with a text editor and append the following line:



    1.2.3.4 yourdomain.com www.yourdomain.com

    (Note: Make sure that you don’t have any # signs in front of the IP address as they will deactivate this entry)

    This will «tell» your computer to resolve yourdomain.com to 1.2.3.4. Once you do that you may need to clear your web browser’s cache, afterwards, if you try to reach your domain http://yourdomain.com in a browser it should take you to the site hosted on the server with IP 1.2.3.4.

    More detailed instructions on how to locate and edit the hosts file on different operating systems are available below:

    Windows 8 and 10

    • Press the Windows key (previously Start menu).
    • Use the Search option and search for Notepad.
    • Right-click Notepad and select Run as administrator.
    • From Notepad, open the hosts file at: C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc\hosts
    • Add the line and save your changes.

    Linux

    • Open up the Terminal.
    • Use the nano command line text editor, or a different one you have available to open up the hosts file. The command with nano is as follows (the command will require your Linux user’s password):

    • Add the appropriate changes in the hosts file.
    • Use the Control and X key combination to save the changes

    Mac OS X 10.6 through 10.12

    You should be logged in with a user with administrator privileges on your MAC.

    • Open Applications -> Utilities -> Terminal.
    • Edit the hosts file with a command line text editor such as nano by typing the following line in the terminal (the command will require your Mac user’s password):



      sudo nano /private/etc/hosts


    • Add your changes at the bottom of the file.
    • Save the changes with the Control and X key combination.

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