How to fix a car – How to Fix a Car


How to Fix Car Dents

As important as it is to take pride in the appearance of your car, it is also important to save money repairing the minor dents and dings that come with owning it. Not only are you maintaining the quality of the structure of your vehicle, but when the time comes to sell it, you’re maintaining the value.

Luckily, there are three great at-home methods you can use to repair small dents and dings by yourself and fast — saving you all the time and money you could spend at a body shop. Better yet, you don’t have to be mechanically-inclined to fix them.

Method 1 of 3: Use a plunger

The plunger method is a favorite among DIY types. It is particularly ideal for shallow, small- to medium-sized dents on flat, metal surfaces such as a vehicle door, hood, or roof. (It will not work on plastic.)

This method relies heavily on the rim of the plunger fitting completely around the dent so as to form a complete and unbroken seal. You will want to gauge and measure the dented area with the plunger before you begin, to make sure there are no curved surfaces that could compromise the seal. That said, this method might not work on surfaces adjacent to windows, fenders, or wheel wells.

Materials Needed

  • Petroleum jelly or water for lubrication
  • Rubber mallet (if necessary)
  • Standard cup plunger (you cannot use a flange plunger)

Step 1: Apply a lubricant. Use a small amount of petroleum jelly or water to lubricate the edges of your standard cup plunger.

Step 2: Press the plunger over the dent. Carefully apply the lubricated plunger around the dent and gently press inward, making sure a tight seal forms.

Step 3: Pull the plunger back toward you. The suction will hopefully pop the dent out as the plunger comes unsealed.

Repeat again as necessary until the dent is removed.

  • Tip: In some cases, you might notice that the dent isn’t completely gone. If you can, use a small rubber mallet and go behind the dent and very lightly tap it out. If you don’t have a rubber mallet, wrap an old towel or sweater around the head of a metal or wooden hammer.

  • Warning: Do not use a mallet or a hammer on plastic, as it is likely to crack.

Method 2 of 3: Use dry ice

Primarily used for cooling purposes in broken refrigerators and coolers, or to increase the creepiness effect in jack-o-lanterns, dry ice — the solid form of carbon dioxide — is a relatively cheap and readily-available substance you can use to get shallow dents out of your car.

  • Warning: Dry ice is extremely cold (about 110 °F below zero), and cannot be handled without thick, protective work gloves, or oven mitts. Also, wearing safety goggles is essential when handling hazardous materials.

Materials Needed

  • Dry ice
  • Safety goggles
  • Work gloves (or oven mitts)

Step 1: Apply your protective gear before handling the dry ice.

Step 2: Take a small chunk of dry ice and rub it around the dent.

Step 3: Wait for the cool surface to react with the warmer air around it. If the dent doesn’t pop out after the first attempt, repeat.

Method 3 of 3: Use a hairdryer (or other heating tool) and compressed air

Using a similar principle as the cold method, the hairdryer technique dramatically expands the metal around the dent and the compressed air contracts it, forcing the metal back to its original shape.

There are a few different heating methods you can use based on the tools you have lying around your house. A hairdryer is probably the simplest and safest method, but you can also use a standard lighter and foil, or boiling water to produce a similar heating effect.

  • Warning: If you choose to use a lighter, you must also have foil so you don’t damage your paint job. Also, make sure to never expose the propellants in the aerosol to an open flame. If you use boiling water, be careful not to scald yourself as you pour and as the water runs off the vehicle.

Materials Needed

  • Compressed air
  • Boiling water (optional method)
  • Hairdryer (preferred method)
  • Standard lighter and foil (optional method)
  • Safety goggles
  • Work gloves

Step 1: Take safety precautions if necessary. Apply protective gear if you are using either the boiling water method or the lighter and foil method.

Step 2: Apply heat to the dent for 30 seconds. Use the hairdryer, the boiling water, or the lighter and foil technique to heat the dent for about 30 seconds.

If you’re using the lighter and foil method, turn off the flame and remove the foil.

Step 3: Cool the heated metal. Blast the dented area with compressed air and wait until the metal snaps back into place.

Fixing a shallow dent in your car is usually a straightforward process. For deeper dents on steel parts of your vehicle, a more involved method using a dent repair kit might be necessary. The skill level needed to complete these tasks is a little more advanced than the other methods; because of this, it takes more time, energy, and precision. All the tools you need should be included in the kit, as well as step-by-step instructions for clarity, ease of use, and for a job well done.

How to Fix a Car Horn

You’re on your way to work and all of a sudden — a driver on his cellphone pulls out in front of you. You go to honk your horn but nothing happens. You quickly pull into the opposite lane, barely avoiding a collision. Not having a functional horn could have costed someone’s life.

Typically, the horn circuit consists of the horn, switch, fuse, and relay. Battery voltage is applied through a fuse to the relay winding and contacts. When the horn switch is depressed, the relay is grounded, completing the circuit and blowing the horn. Some vehicles do not use a relay, and voltage is supplied directly through the horn switch to the horn. In this article, we will go over how to test and repair each of these components. Here is how to fix your car horn:

  • Gather the correct materials — To properly fix your car horn, you will need the following: Digital multimeter, Jumper wires (optional), Multimeter, Protective gloves, Quick-disconnect connectors (optional), Repair manuals (optional), Safety glasses, Wire crimping and stripping pliers (optional), and some Wire (optional).

  • Locate the fuse box — You first need to test the fuse and relay. The location of the fuse can be found in your owner’s manual. Generally, there is a fuse box on the driver’s side of the dash and one under the hood of the car.

    Tip: AutoZone provides free online repair manuals for certain makes and models. You can visit their website to see if a free manual is available for your car.

  • Find the right fuse — Look at the diagram on the back panel of the fuse box and find the fuse number that corresponds to the horn.

    Tip: You can also check your manual to see the fuse diagrams for each of your fuse boxes.

  • Remove the fuse — Once you have located the fuse for the horn, pull it out with either your fingers or a pair of fuse pliers.

  • Check the fuse — In order to check whether or not the fuse is your problem, you will need to inspect the fuse to see if has blown. If the U-shaped wire is broken, the fuse has blown and will need to be replaced. If the wire inside is not broken, this does not ensure that the fuse is still working.

  • Test the fuse with a multimeter — Test the fuse with a multimeter. You can do this by turning on the multimeter and touching one meter lead to each of the fuse’s terminals. You should get a numeric reading on the meter screen. If, however, you get a reading of saying “Out of limits (OL)”, there is no continuity and the fuse is blown.

  • Install the new fuse — If you find the fuse has failed, install a new one of the same amperage rating. To do this, simply push the fuse back into its correct slot.

    Note: Keep in mind, fuses don’t blow for no reason; they blow in order to protect the circuit from excessive current draw. Keep an eye on any new fuses that are installed. If it blows again, you will need to inspect the circuit for faults.

  • Locate your relay box — If the fuse checks out OK, the next thing you’ll want to do is check the horn relay. The relay location will be listed in your owner’s manual. Generally, it will be found in the underhood fuse box.

  • Test the relay — The easiest way to check for proper relay operation, is to swap the horn relay with another identical relay in the vehicle. Typically, the same relay design will be used on a few different circuits, allowing the relays to be swapped within a car. If the horn functions with the alternate relay installed, you know the relay is the problem and should be replaced.

  • Remove the relay and set up your meter — Using the repair manual for your vehicle, to determine which relay terminal is controlled by the switch. Most relay switches will be found inside the steering wheel. This will require opening the steering wheel by accessing the two screws on the left and right sides of the steering wheel.

    Warning: The horn switch is usually part of the steering wheel pad. In modern vehicles, this means it is part of the airbag system. Improper service of the airbag system can result in accidental airbag deployment and/or damage to the airbag system. So, if you suspect a faulty horn switch, it is advisable to have the repair performed by a professional.

  • Test the horn switch — If there is no power at the horn switch, then the button will no longer respond when the button is pressed.

  • Test the relay switch — Remove the relay and set your digital multimeter to the Ohms setting. Touch one meter lead to the switch relay socket and the other to the battery negative post. Have another person push the horn button to test the reading.

    Tip: You should see a numeric reading on the screen indicating continuity. A continuous reading displaying “Out of Limits (OL)” means that the switch is not closing and needs to be replaced.

  • Test the horn — You can find the horns of a car on the radiator core or right behind the car’s grille.

  • Determine which wire is power and which is ground — Using the factory repair manual for your vehicle, determine which wire is power and which is ground.

  • Jump the horn — Remove the horn connector and attach a jumper lead between the battery’s positive post and the (+) terminal on the horn. Then, connect the other jumper wire between the negative battery post and the (-) terminal on the horn. The horn should now sound. If it does not, the horn is faulty and should be replaced.

  • Test the circuit — If your horn still does not work after you have tried all of the methods above and replaced all faulty components, then the last thing that you can check is the horn’s circuit.

  • Check the wiring — If everything checks out to this point, but the horn still does not work, you’ll want to check the circuit wiring. Test the ground side of the circuit and the power side for current and voltage in the steps below.

  • Test the ground side of the circuit — According to your car’s manual, identify the ground side of the circuit. To check for ground, set the meter to the Ohms setting. Then touch one meter lead to the horn connector (-) pin and the other to the ground. You should see a numeric reading displayed on the meter lead if this is working properly.

    Tip: A reading of “Out of Limits” (OL) means there is no current to the horn ground. In this case, a professional will need to access the factory wiring diagram to trace the cause.

  • Test the power side of the circuit — According to your car’s manual, identify the power side of the circuit. Check for power by setting your meter to the volts setting. Touch one meter lead to the horn connector (+) pin and the other to ground. Your meter should display battery voltage.

    Tip: If it does not display a number, a professional will need to access the factory wiring diagram to trace the cause.

  • If you’d prefer to kick back and relax while someone else fixes your horn, the team at YourMechanic offers horn diagnostics and repair. Calling a professional can save you time, money, and frustration. If needed, our mechanics can replace your fuse, relay, switch, or horn so that you can safely venture on the road.

    How To Fix A Keyed Car Without Spending A Dime

    The obnoxious world has spared nobody; it has disrupted the lives of most sorted people and has made it difficult for even the most honest men to survive. The only way out of the disruption is to be tech-ready.

    A person who is prepared for any situation and can keep calm when the world tries to tear him or her down is going to go places. Learning how to fix a keyed car is going to help people control their anger every time some innocuous act takes place.


    Kids and even adults too take pleasure in keying people’s expensive cars; some do it out of love for being nasty whereas others do it out of jealousy.

    You can take all requisite measures but you simply cannot secure yourself from the wrongdoings of an evil mind. Well! Securing may be out of your reach but fixing it is certainly possible. You can always spend some time trying fixing your keyed car.

    One can fix the dent and make their cars scratch-free in many ways. The next time you find a scratch mark on your car, do not panic, just follow the listed steps and you can see a miracle happen for sure.

    How To Fix A Keyed Car Without Spending A Dime

    5 Simple Steps to Fix a Keyed Car!

    Before we get into the details and provide you with a full-proof solution, we are going to list down all the items you will need to execute the process with great ease.

    The List of Items Required Goes as Follows

    • Car wax
    • Bucket of soap-water
    • Rubbing Compound
    • Microfiber Clothe
    • Dry Sandpaper
    • Shoe Polish
    The Repair Process:

    This ‘How to Fix a Keyed Car’ tutorial is going to solve one of the most common problems of your life; you are going to have a relieved mind once you master it.

    This is one of those rarest solutions you will be using every now and then. With this tutorial, we are not just providing you with a lot of knowledge but also with a necessary power.


    Wash The Entire Keyed Area Intricately with Soap and Wait Until It Dries

    It is important to remove all the dust or any unwanted material from the car’s surface before starting with the repair process. Doing this allows you to remove the dust and dirt, which can lead to further scratch while repairing.

    One can make use of a big bucket and create a soap solution by dissolving either soap or detergent in normal water.

    Related Article :


    Rub Shoe Polish Over the Cleaned Surface

    Rubbing shoe polish over the cleaned surface is crucial because later we are going to use sandpaper to smoothen the surface. If we fail to apply shoe polish properly, we will surely end up scratching the surface even more.

    Sand papers are rough in nature and they are generally used to remove extra paint, color and adhesives. Sandpapers are manufactured for removal of wall paint but, its application on cars is also one of the best examples of innovative ideas.

    Important Point: One needs to be very gentle while rubbing the sand paper on the surface because it smoothens the surface, which prepares the car for repair. Getting aggressive while using sand paper can do more damage than benefit.


    Time for Master Stroke

    Now that you have cleaned and smoothened the surface, it is time to do the necessary. You need to prepare a solution of rubbing compound and soapy water in a bucket.

    Once the solution is ready, dip sandpaper in the solution and apply it slowly over the dented area. The idea here is to rub until the scratch starts disappearing, there’s a lot you can achieve by being slow with this process because going fast will lead to more damages and disappointments. This certainly is one of the most important steps of How to fix a keyed car tutorial.

    Note: Professionals recommend making strokes with an angle of 60 Degrees, which helps you to attack the base of the scratch. By rubbing smoothly on the base, you will be able to eradicate the scratch from the roots.


    Electric Polishing Wheel And Rubbing Compound

    Rubbing compound is going to prove a very vital part of this process. You will have to be prepared to use it every now and then in great volumes to remove the unwanted scratch.

    This 4th step involves exclusive rubbing of the ‘rubbing compound’; it leverages the car with the requisite shine and also makes you happy. You will be able to see how easily the scratch starts to disappear.

    Electric polishing wheel is going to help you with the buffing, a lot of people prefer hand buffing but electric polishing wheel gives better and impressive results.


    Giving Final Touch With Polish

    This is the step where you get to see miracles happen; you are going to be awe once you apply the polish as directed and see final results. Car wax and microfiber cloth are going to be the most important ingredients. Be very selective while buying them. A truly potential polish may be expensive but it is worth all the pain.

    Slowly apply the polish, rub with the microfiber paper, and see the veteran shine come back.

    Now That You Know How to Fix a Keyed Car, What to Do Next?

    If you tend to follow each and every step listed here then you are going to unlock one of the most important lessons in life. The contemporary world is going to continue to disrupting your life; be prepared with all the items listed in this tutorial and smile every time you find a scratch on your car.

    All the items listed are essential for executing how to fix a keyed car repair process; missing out on any of those can make it difficult for you to acquire the desired results.

    We hope that this smart modern day tutorial helped you solve one of the most common problems of the millennial era. We look forward to your views, comments and opinions.

    How to fix a car heater

    Car heater circuit layoutFanResistor blockFan motorFanHeatercasingHeater fanswitchFusebox

    Car heater circuit layout

    The heater fan is simply an electric motor mounted inside the heater unit. Current is fed to the motor via a switch on the dash.

    If your fan has several speeds, they are usually controlled by a large resistor block mounted piggy-back on the fan motor. For slow speeds the dash switch directs the current to the motor via the resistor block. For top speed the switch bypasses the resistor and applies full current to the motor.

    The car’s heating system consists essentially of a motor-driven fan to blow warm air from the engine bay to the car’s interior.

    The system is very simple and rarely goes wrong. The only fault that is likely to develop is that the fan stops working because of a break in the electrical circuit. This circuit consists of a feed wire from the fusebox to the on/off switch on the dashboard or centre console, and another wire from the switch to the heater motor. The motor is usually earthed to the body by a separate wire.

    In most cars the heater motor is situated under the centre of the dash, which makes it rather inaccessible. In some cases, however, the motor is under the bonnet at the rear of the bulkhead.

    The most common cause of any problem is a blown fuse. This is normally in the main fusebox although it may be an in-line fuse wired into the feed of the motor itself. Check in your workshop manual to find the exact position of the fuse. If it protects other circuits and these have stopped working too, then the problem should be solved by fitting a new fuse.

    Wiring check

    If fitting a new fuse fails to solve the problem, or if the other components controlled by the fuse are working, check for loose, dirty, trapped or disconnected wires.

    Find out where the heater wires are situated from your workshop manual wiring diagram. Follow the wires as far as you can, checking each connection.

    Variable control

    Some cars don’t have the multi-position switch on the dash or the resistor block on the motor. Instead, the sliding control is attached to a variable resistor to control the motor speed.

    This gives a stepless increase in motor speed so that you can set whatever speed you like.

    Earth check

    If you find no damaged wires, check the heater motor earth connection. This is usually on the bulkhead and may have become corroded.

    Clean away any corrosion on the mating surfaces with wet-or-dry paper and refit the securing nut or screw, making sure it is tight. Cover the connection with vaseline to prevent further corrosion.

    Checking a heater fan circuit

    Probe the live terminals in the multi-plug.

    Probe the output terminal on the switch

    Carry out all your tests with the clip of your test lamp earthed.

    Turn on the ignition and switch on the fan. Disconnect the motor feed wires (here a multi-connector plug) and probe the terminals. If the lamp lights, current is present and the motor is probably faulty. If the lamp doesn’t light, test the switch.

    Check for current at the fusebox.

    Pull the switch out of the dash and, leaving it switched on, probe the output terminals. If the lamp lights, the wiring between the switch and motor is faulty. If it doesn’t, check the switch input terminal in the same way. If the lamp lights, the switch is broken. If it doesn’t light, check for current at the fusebox.

    Then probe the switch input terminal.

    Probe the fuse output terminal with the lamp. If the lamp fails to light, change the fuse and try again. If the lamp lights but the heater still won’t work, then the wiring between fusebox and switch is faulty.

    Use test lamp

    If you can find no fault with the wiring, use a test lamp to find out if there is a feed to the motor.

    Connect one end of the test lamp to an earth point. Disconnect the feed wire or wires to the motor. There may be individual connections, or a multi-connector plug. Turn on the ignition and move the motor switch to one of the on positions.

    Probe each wire in turn with the test lamp. If the lamp lights, current is reaching that point. Repeat with the heater switch in the other position. If the lamp lights on both wires, the problem is in the motor itself (see below).

    If there is no power at the motor, you must check the connections at the switch. Probe the output terminals first, switching from low to high speeds. If the test lamp lights up on the output terminals the wiring between the switch and motor is broken and you may prefer to seek expert advice. If the lamp fails to light, check the input terminal. If this lights the test lamp, the switch is faulty. If the test lamp doesn’t illuminate when touching the input terminal, the wiring between the fusebox and switch is faulty, so consult an auto-electrician.

    Testing the motor

    Resistor checkResistorCircuittester

    Resistor check

    If the heater motor only works on one speed you should check the resistor. These are normally mounted on the rear of the motor but check with your workshop manual first.

    Clip the wire of your circuit tester to one end of the resistor, then probe the other terminals on it. If the tester fails to light replace the resistor.

    To check the motor windings you need a circuit tester. This is similar to a test lamp but has its own battery power supply.

    Disconnect the battery and the wires connected to the motor, making a note of how they fit. Attach one side of the tester to the motor earth wire and probe each of the feed terminals in turn. If the tester lights on all the terminals, the motor is sound. But if the tester fails to light the motor has blown and will need replacing.

    If the motor keeps blowing fuses, it may have become jammed. Sometimes the heater fan gets clogged with debris you need to remove.

    How to Fix a Car That Won’t Start

    Whether at home, work, school or out on a shopping trip, it’s never a pleasant situation to sit down in your driver’s seat and find your vehicle won’t start. It can feel like an overwhelming experience when you’re not only trying to get the car started, but also trying to determine the cause.

    Luckily, there are usually three common areas that can be investigated if you want to be proactive in discovering why your vehicle won’t start. The first area to be looked at involves testing the battery and the connections to the starter. The second is the fuel and fuel pump and the third, and usually the most common culprit, is issues with the spark to the engine.

    Part 1 of 3: The battery and starter

    Materials Needed

    The most common reasons behind a car not starting usually reside with the vehicle’s battery and/or its starter. Starting our investigation here will allow us to get to a solution more quickly on why the car is not starting.

    To investigate a dead battery, we will want to start with the key turned to the “on” position. Go ahead and turn on the car’s headlights. Notice if they are strong and bright, if they are weak and dim, of if they are off completely. If they are dim or not illuminating, than the vehicle may have a dead battery. A dead battery can be jumped back to life with jumper cables and another car by following these steps.

    Step 1: Park both vehicles close. Park the donor vehicle close to the vehicle with the dead battery. You will want both engine compartments to be near to each other so the that jumper cables can reach each battery end to end.

    Step 2: Safely attach the clamps to the terminals. With both vehicles off, open each hood and locate the battery for each car.

    • Have a friend hold one end of the jumper cables. Be sure that the two clamps do not touch each other.

    • Connect the red clamp to the positive battery terminal then the black clamp on the negative terminal.

    Step 3: Now do the same for the donor vehicle. After the jumper cables are connected, start the donor vehicle and make sure all the accessories such as the heater/air conditioner, stereo, and various lights are all turned off.

    • These extras create a load on the charging system, often making it difficult to jumpstart a dead car.

    Step 4: Allow the dead battery charge. Let the donor car continue to run for a few minutes. This is what allows the dead battery to charge.

    • After a few minutes, turn the key in the receiving car to the “on” position (do not start yet). Ensure that all of the accessories are turned off as well.

    Step 5: Start the receiving vehicle. Finally, start the receiving vehicle and allow it to run. While it runs, have someone assist you in removing the jumper cables from each vehicle. Be sure to remove the negative clamp first, then the positive clamp.

    Step 6: Drive the car for 15 minutes. Take the vehicle with the newly charged battery for a 15 minute drive. Doing this should allow the alternator to charge the battery fully.

    Step 7: Have the battery tested. It’s a good idea to have your battery tested soon after this jump start to determine if it needs to be replaced.

    • Tip: A certified mechanic will be able to check out your battery if you do not have a battery tester. If the vehicle has a good battery but the engine does not turn over, the starter may be the culprit and will need to be replaced.

    The starter can be tested with a digital multimeter placed on the signal wire between the starter and the battery. Have a friend turn the key and attempt to start the vehicle. While attempting to start, this wire should reveal the battery voltage it is receiving. If your power probe or multimeter is in fact displaying a battery voltage, you can rest assured that the wiring to the starter is good. If the starter is just clicking or not making any noise, then the starter is the culprit.

    Part 2 of 3: Fuel and fuel pump

    Step 1: Test the fuel in the vehicle. Turn the key to the “on” position and observe the gas gauge. In most cases, this will tell you how much fuel you have left in the tank.

    • Note: Sometimes the gas gauge can fail and and show that you have more gas then you really have. If you suspect low fuel is the issue, grab yourself a gas can and add a gallon of gas to the vehicle to see if it starts. If the vehicle does start, then you have discovered why the car is not starting: the gas gauge was inaccurate, it will need to be repaired.

    Step 2: Test the fuel pump. Remove the gas cap and listen for the sound of the fuel pump turning on when you turn the key to the “on” position.

    • This step may require the help of a friend to turn the key while you listen.

    Sometimes it can be hard to hear the fuel pump, so using a fuel pressure gauge can show if the fuel pump is working and also tell us if it is providing enough fuel to the engine. Most modern vehicles have an access port to plug the fuel pressure gauge into.

    Observe the fuel pressure gauge while starting the vehicle. If there is zero pressure, the wiring for the fuel pump will need to be tested to make sure power is going to the fuel pump. If there is pressure, compare your readings to the manufacturer spec to see if it is in range.

    Part 3 of 3: Spark

    Step 1: Check your spark plug. If you have adequate fuel then you need to next check for spark. Open the hood and locate the the spark plug wires.

    • Remove one spark plug wire and use a spark plug socket and ratchet to remove one spark plug. Inspect the spark plug for signs of failure.

    • If the white porcelain is cracked or if the spark plug gap is too large, then the spark plugs need to be replaced.

    Step 2: Test with a new spark plug. To verify if the vehicle is receiving spark, take a brand new spark plug and insert it into the spark plug wire.

    • Touch the end of the spark plug to any bare metal surface to ground the spark plug. This will complete the circuit.

    Step 3: Crank the engine. Have a friend crank the engine while you hold the spark plug to the ground connection.

    • Warning: Do not physically touch the spark plug with your hand or you can get shocked. Be sure to hold the rubber end of the spark plug wire to prevent getting shocked. If the vehicle has no spark, it is possible the ignition coil or distributor is the culprit and will need to be tested.

    While the three most common areas have been provided, there really is quite a large number of reasons that could prevent a vehicle from starting. Further diagnostics would be required to determine which component is preventing the vehicle from starting and what repairs are necessary to get your vehicle back on the road.

    How to fix a car fan

    How the fan is fittedRelayFan motorFanShroudFan assemblyThermo-switch

    How the fan is fitted

    Electric radiator-fan motors are switched on either by the ignition switch — and run while the engine is working — or by a thermostatic switch.

    Thermostatically controlled motors do not work the fan until the engine coolant rises above normal operating temperature, and then switch off when it has cooled down again.

    To check that the fan is working, listen for it cutting in and out, and watch the temperature gauge.

    If the engine shows signs of overheating, stop and look to see if the fan is working. With the type operated by the ignition switch, keep the engine running.

    Where there is a thermostatic switch in the circuit, start the car and let it run at fast idle. With no airflow through the radiator, it will soon warm up to the temperature at which the fan should cut in.

    The assembly usually has only three components — fan motor, thermostatic (or thermo) switch, and relay. If the fan is not working, these units or the wiring to them may be at fault.

    Checking the circuit and motor for faults

    Check a fan motor for faultsConnect the motor feedterminal to the live terminal onthe battery.

    Check a fan motor for faults

    Fan motor with the thermo-switch lead disconnected and test lead connected to the battery.

    Look at the fuse box for a blown fuse. If the fuses are intact, switch on the ignition and use a circuit tester to find if there is current at the motor terminals.

    Alternatively, connect the feed terminal on the motor direct to the battery positive terminal if the motor is fed via a thermo-switch.

    In either case, if there is a current at the motor, the motor is at fault.

    If the thermo-switch does not operate, the earthing point of the circuit may be faulty. Check that the earthing point is clean and tight. Check also the functioning of the thermo-switch.

    Changing the fan motor

    Disconnect the battery, and take off the wiring terminals to the motor or disconnect the plug. Free the wires from clips or other fixings on the fan shroud or nearby bodywork.

    A new motor is supplied without a fan, which must be refitted from the old one.

    The motor and fan normally come off as an assembly, but you may also have to remove the shroud and sometimes the radiator.

    Separate the components. Clean the parts that are to be reused, simply by degreasing or even by repainting.

    Checking the new motor

    When you fit a replacement motor, check it by connecting its leads directly to the battery. Be sure to connect the positive (+) and negative (—) leads to the corresponding battery terminals.

    Take care — the motor will kick as it starts and there will be a large spark when it is connected.

    Checking the switch for faults

    A thermo-switch with push-on connections. The switch is threaded and has a sealing washer which must be renewed.

    If the fan motor is not at fault, leave the ignition switched on, take the connections off the thermo-switch and briefly touch them together.

    If the fan motor now works, the switch is faulty. If it does not, check to see that there is current flowing to the switch by using a circuit tester on the feed wire to the thermoswitch.

    Touch the leads together to bypass the switch.

    If the tester does not light, trace the lead from the thermo-switch back to its power supply; the car handbook may have a wiring diagram.

    If the tester lights, trace the lead from the thermo-switch through to the relay and check the terminals for tightness and cleanliness. Clean and tighten as necessary.

    Changing a thermo-switch

    The thermo-switch is normally located in the radiator bottom tank, in the thermostat housing, or in the cylinder head.

    To remove the switch, drain the radiator (See How to flush an engine radiator) until the coolant is below the level at which it is fitted. Catch the coolant in a clean container if you plan to reuse it.

    If a rubber cover is fitted over the back of the switch, ease it off, then disconnect the electrical connections.

    The switch can now be unscrewed from its mounting point with an appropriate spanner. It may, however, be very tight, so take care not to distort the surrounding metal if it is fitted in the radiator bottom tank. Always fit a new sealing washer.

    Checking the relay for faults

    Short-circuit the thermo-switch terminals to test the relay. You may have to withdraw the lead connectors partly to bare the terminals.

    With the ignition switched on, short-circuit the thermo-switch by putting a screwdriver across its two terminals; do not disconnect the leads. You may be able to hear a click from the relay as it operates.

    Test for current with a test lamp or circuit tester at the ‘live’ lead to the relay — again with the ignition switched on.

    If there is current here but, when the thermo-switch is bypassed, none at the terminal for the fan-motor lead, the relay is faulty and must be replaced.

    Checking the T-piece

    On the Datsun Cherry the thermoswitch and connections are in a T-piece on the bottom radiator hose, so look there if the switch is not on the radiator.

    How do I fix a dent in my car myself? 5 repair tips to try, from using boiling water to a plunger

    A TRIP to the mechanic to repair an unsightly dent can often cause an even bigger dent in your pocket.

    But, there are genius hacks that allow you to mend various motoring mishaps — here’s all you need to know…


    An amazing video shows a car completely rid of it’s dented bumper using just hot water

    Tip 1: How to fix a dent in your car with boiling water

    If that sounds too good to be true, there are amazing videos of car owners ridding their cars of a dent by pouring scalding water over the damaged area.

    Once the dented portion of the car is nice and warmed up, the dent can be gently popped out by pushing from the other side.

    It should be said, that this trick will likely only work if your bumper is comprised of plastic.

    And while hot water can obviously work wonders, many people insist on using cold water on the previously damaged area after it has returned to the original shape to help cool it down and set it.

    Tip 2: How to fix a dent in your car with a vacuum cleaner

    Depending on the strength of your hoover, the suction from your vacuum can help you get rid of a dent in your car.

    To help improve the suction levels of the device, you can employ the help of a bucket — simply make a hole in the bottom of the bucket and tape it to the vacuum nozzle.

    Place the contraption over the dent and switch on the cleaning device.

    If the dent is shallow enough, it should come out relatively easily.

    Dorling Kindersley — Getty

    This household device can also be used to fix car dents

    Tip 3: How to fix a car dent using a plunger

    Adopting a similar theory to the vacuum cleaner method, there is a way to remove a car dent with a toilet plunger.

    This technique is most effective if the dent is small to medium in size.

    Simply splash some water over the area and place the plunger over the top.

    As you start to push and pull the device, the dent should begin to pop out.

    Getty — Contributor

    Dry ice doesn’t just belong on stage at a rock concert

    Tip 4: How to fix a dent using dry ice

    Granted, dry ice isn’t exactly a household item, but it can be an effective way of removing a car dent.

    It is important to wear protective gloves as a safety precaution.

    Hold a piece of dry ice over the dent and start rubbing it in a circular motion.

    You should then hear the dented area pop back into place.


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    Tip 5: How to use a hairdryer to remove a car dent

    This method works particularly well on plastic surfaces, like car bumpers.

    Using a hairdryer and a can of compressed air, you can straighten out any knocks and bumps to your car.

    All you have to do is heat the affected area using the hairdryer.

    When the surface is hot enough, replace the hairdryer with the compressed air, making sure the can is upside down.

    Some people reckon nail paint works as treat when it comes to acting as a temporary scratch remover.

    Simply pick as shade the same colour as your vehicle and paint over the dodgy area — permanent marker pen can also help.

    Of course, these are just cheap touch-ups and will wear off after a short time – but they may see you through until your next pay packet…

    How to fix a dent in your car using just boiling water

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